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The output from a commercial device used to administer transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and the electrical impedance of elk were investigated during the surgical removal ofvelvet antler. The voltage output from the TENS device, the current through the animal, and the impedance between the animal's ears were all determined and analyzed. The impedance was found to be purely resistive and ranged from 479 to 1185 n. Despite the large variation in impedance, the TENS operator was able to administer a consistent current level with a mean of 2.79 rnA RMS.
J.L Thierman, TO. Crowe, J.M. Stookey and B. Valentine 1999. ELECTRJCAL IMPEDANCE OF ELK WHILE ADMINISTERJNG TENS. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 41(4):267-269.
Canadian Society for Bioengineering