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Early systems of controlling the environment in livestock buildings used a safe carbon dioxide (C02) concentration in the atmosphere as the criterion for defining minimum ventilation rates. Subsequently, as physiological data on moisture output from livestock became available, these minimum rates have been based on the control of moisture within the building. Refinements to this method have been added over the years to take into account evaporated moisture from within the building. However, water vapour is not the only contaminant found in the atmosphere of a livestock building and the minimum ventilation rate criterion of moisture removal may not be valid in all cases. Other contaminants which may create problems are dust, bacteria and noxious gases. The increase in problems of noxious gas contamination of farm buildings in recent years has been associated mainly with the practice of storing animal wastes in pits either beneath slatted floors or adjacent to livestock buildings. Storage conditions in these pits are normally anaerobic, and, as a consequence, relatively large quantities of C02, ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and methane (CH4) are produced as a by-product of the anaerobic de composition of the slurry. The release of these noxious gases creates a potential health hazard. Agitation of slurry beneath slatted floors or in pits adjacent to the building has resulted in fatalities to both humans and livestock. Lethal levels of gases have been recorded (8, 9, 11). Little is known of the effect on animal performance and health of sub-lethal concentrations of noxious gases when they are subjected to either continuous or intermittent exposure (6).
the influence of ventilation on distribution and dispersal of atmospheric gaseous contaminants
Brannigan, P.G. and J.B. McQuitty 1971. THE INFLUENCE OF VENTILATION ON DISTRIBUTION AND DISPERSAL OF ATMOSPHERIC GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 13(2):69-75.
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