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Throughout the development of irrigated agriculture, the major concern has been water. As irrigation water supplies become scarce in arid and semi-arid regions, more efficient water application methods become highly important. Standard irrigation methods are particularly wasteful of water in arid lands. A new method which promises a higher water use efficiency is subsurface irrigation. The subsurface irrigation method used in this study consists of buried perforated pipes through which water is applied to the root zone. Water seeps out and reaches the plant roots through capillary action in the soil. Subsurface irrigation has many potential benefits (Cole 1971) such as saving water, beneficial crop response, labor saving and others. One disadvantage of subsurface irrigation is the high capitalization due to pipe cost and installation expenses (Hagood 1972). Narrower spacings will result in the use of more pipe and a higher cost per unit area to be irrigated and vice versa. Successful use of subsurface irrigation depends on its design adequacy. Water source, spacing and depth, and flow rate through the buried pipe are important design factors. Many investigators have used subsurface irrigation with different spacings for various crops (Bryan and Baker 1964 Zetzsche 1964 Pohjakas 1966 Zetzsche and Newman 1966 Mitchell and Usherwood, 1967 Anonymous 1968 Hoskyn and Bryan 1969). The depth of installation is determined by the root zone of different crops and tillage operations but the 30- to 50-cm depth is reported to be the most common for shallow-rooted crops (Bryan and Baker 1964 Anonymous 1968 Hoskyn and Bryan 1969 Edlin 1970).
evaluation of subsurface irrigation spacings for bean production
Sepaskhah, A.R. and S.A. Sichani 1976. EVALUATION OF SUBSURFACE IRRIGATION SPACINGS FOR BEAN PRODUCTION. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 18(2):23-26.
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