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Center pivot (C.P.) irrigation is presently an increasingly popular method of irrigating large agricultural areas. By definition, a C.P. system consists of a lateral line of sprinklers continuously rotating around a center-pivot point. Water under pressure is supplied to the lateral at the pivot. The lateral is supported by a number of self-propelled towers, each having a driving mechanism utilizing wheels or tracks. The adjustable speed of travel allows the application of 10 - 100 mm of water per revolution. The important features of a well designed C.P. system, as recognized by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (1978) are: the capacity to meet the peak moisture demand of the crops irrigated, to replace moisture in the soil profile frequently enough to maintain conditions for optimum plant growth, and to refill the soil moisture reservoir uniformly. The first two features are directly related to the soil type, the crop grown and the area to be irrigated. The usual approach to achieving relatively uniform water distribution is to increase the discharge from the first to the last sprinkler that is, by increasing the application rates in proportion to an increasing area irrigated by individual sprinklers. Previous research (Bittinger and Longenbaugh 1962) has indicated that the theoretical uniformity varies from the actual field uniformity. Large uniformity deviations are the result of inadequate sprinkler systems design and external factors, mainly the wind. The effect of wind on the distribution from stationary sprinkler systems has been documented (Korven 1952). However, the distribution from C.P. systems as affected by wind has not been examined to any great extent.
simulated model of center pivot sprinkler irrigation systems
Rapp, E., Chanasyk, D.S. and B.C. Horvath 1979. SIMULATED MODEL OF CENTER PIVOT SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEMS. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 21(2):141-146.
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