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Grass and alfalfa are important crops providing energy and protein for cattle. Ensiling these materials in tower silos minimizes energy losses during harvesting and maximizes the degree to which feeding systems can be mechanized (Zimmer 1979). In Canada, the structural design of silos often follows the guidelines of the Canadian Farm Building Code (CFBC) (1977). It provides formulae for the lateral pres sure and vertical load on the silo wall exerted by whole-plant silage material. In the United States, farm silo design is guided by the International Silo Association (ISA) standards (ISA 1982 a-d). These standards use the well-known Janssen (1895) formula for the determination of wall pressures in top-unloading silos and modifications thereof for bottom-un loading silos. The primary objective of the research described here was to improve our knowledge of the structural design loads on tower silo walls. The stored material considered in this paper is alfalfa haylage de fined here as silage ranging from 40 to 70% moisture content. Wall pressures in a silo are, amongst other things, a function of the density distribution of the silage mass. Therefore, the research included a number of pressure-density tests on alfalfa haylage ensiled in model silos. A secondary objective of this paper is to report the silo capacities that were determined numerically as part of the procedure for determining the structural de sign loads.
haylage densities, pressures, and capacities in tower silos
Jofriet, J. C., Shapton, P. and T. B. Daynard 1982. HAYLAGE DENSITIES, PRESSURES, AND CAPACITIES IN TOWER SILOS. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 24(2):141-148.
141 - 148