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With increased use of the loose housing system of handling livestock, adequate watering facilities become more difficult to provide. Yung (2) reports that heat is only required to keep water from freezing, it does not need to be warmed. Considering the availability of hydro power on farms, together with its convenience and relatively low cost as compared to other methods of heating, electricity merits consideration for this purpose.
de-icing stock watering tanks with electricity
Paterson, J.J. 1961. DE-ICING STOCK WATERING TANKS WITH ELECTRICITY. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 3(1):28-29.