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Infiltration is a very important process as it is the factor which determines the ratio of water entering soil to that which is runoff from any particular rainfall event. As a result infiltration is a process that has been extensively measured (Amerman 1983 Constantz 1983). Hillel (1980) has portrayed a correspondence between infiltrability after a considerable period of infiltration and saturated hydraulic conductivity (see his Fig. 2.1). Amerman (1983) pointed out that this infiltrability relates to the hydraulic conductivity of a rewetted or satiated soil which may be less than the saturated hydraulic conductivity because of air entrapment. A further complication to the measurement of infiltrability is the variation of the soil macropores being measured. Dixon (1975) has shown that small changes in the hydraulic head applied during ponded infiltration caused large changes in the infiltrability of the soil. He attributed these changes in infiltrability to the exclusion of water flow from successively smaller macropores as the applied hydraulic head is reduced. In addition, Bouma and Dekker (1978) and Bouma et al. (1978) have shown the importance of deep infiltration through large pores or
a closed adjustable head infiltrometer
Topp, G.C. and W.D. Zebchuk 1985. A CLOSED ADJUSTABLE HEAD INFILTROMETER. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 27(2):99-104.
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