Developing nitrogen loss fractions for beef and dairy cattle manure storage systems in Canadian ecoregions: a comparison between West and East
Authors: Chai, L., R. Kr
Description: On-farm manure-nitrogen (N) losses as ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen (N2), and nitrate leaching/ runoff constitute a considerable environmental problem and devaluates manure nutrients. Quantifying N loss fractions [(kg (N loss) (kg manure-N)-1) for animal manure storage systems is critical to develop national or regional emission inventories and mitigation strategies. Emission fractions of NH3-N, N2O-N, NO-N, and N2-N and the loss fraction of nitrate-N leaching/runoff were developed for the primary beef and dairy cattle manure storage systems (i.e., compost, stockpile, feedlot manure pack, liquid tank, slurry pit, and lagoon/earthen storage) in ecoregions of Alberta and Ontario, two of the largest beef production provinces in western and eastern Canada, respectively. Composting has the highest N loss fractions (around 0.5) due to the high air permeability in manure that increases volatilization of NH3 and the nitrification. Beef cattle manure has higher N loss fractions than dairy cattle manure during storage, because beef cattle manure is usually stored as a solid, but dairy cattle manure is generally stored as liquid. The liquid storage system has lower manure-N loss fractions (around 0.1) than a solid manure system (0.15-0.50) in both of Alberta and Ontario. Effects of covering and natural crust formation on N loss fractions from liquid manure storage systems were analyzed. Emission factors derived in this study were significantly different from the fractions recommended by IPCC (2006). This is because the IPCC Tier 1 methodology does not include the spatially and temporally varying conditions of climate, animal feeding, and manure management, etc. when applied to a specific country and region such as Alberta and Ontario Canada.
Keywords: Animal feeding operations, Canadian ecoregions, manure storage, emission factors, leaching and runoff, nitrogen transformations.
Technical field: Biological Systems Engineering
Conference name: CSBE/SCGAB 2015 Annual Conference, Edmonton, AB, 5-8 July 2015.
Session name: Biosystem Management II - Climate Change and Forestry
Citation: Chai, L., R. Kr
Publisher: Canadian Society for Bioengineering
Language 1: en
Rights: Canadian Society for Bioengineering